The following context is written from the book ‘SIRAT E MUSTAQIM’ by ‘PROF. ABDUL QAYYUM NATIQ’. All rights reserved no part of this publication can be reproduced, either written or printed in any form without the legal permission of the publisher.
The Holy Quran
The Holy Quran is the literal speech of Almighty God revealed to the last Prophet’s Muhammad (P.B.U.H), through the Archangel Gabriel, part by part, and protected as promised by Almighty Allah. Verily we have revealed the Quran and for us is its protection.
After the passing of 1400 years, the Quran is written hearts, on papers and on lips. Since the heavenly scriptures of other peoples were lost, Almighty Allah revealed the Quran through his last Messenger and made it the attestor of previously revealed books.
The eloquence and the flow of the Quran is, of course, a miracle as its revelation forced the Rhetoricians of Arabia to exclaim. “It is not the word of man; but more than that, there is no aspect of human life for which guidance is not contained and Allah himself draws the attention of unheeding mankind to this end by proclaiming :
“And with Him are the keys of the Invisible. None but He knoweth them. And He knoweth what is in the land and the sea. Not a leaf Falleth but He knoweth it, not a grain amid the darkness of the earth, naught of wet or dry but (It is noted) in a clear record. (ANAAM: 59)”
This Divine guidance is to last till the end of the World and God willing, as promised by God not a syllable shall be tempered with nor changed. We have cited above the promise of God that these are my words and I am their protector. It is the excellence and superiority of the Holy Quran which distinguishes it above other heavenly scriptures, for within them there is no verse which asserts that God has undertaken to protect them.
All previous scriptures were revealed through Prophets (AS) and then handed over to their followers, but who to their misfortune did not preserve them. Either, infidels snatched the revelations and destroyed them proscribing both the teaching and the preservation so that these Holy words could not survive in their original forms or some peoples adulterated. Divine injunctions which had been revealed for the welfare of mankind, so that obstacles to their base objectives were removed.
Since the Quran is the last of the heavenly books, it is the “attestor” of preceding revelations.
We cite verse of the Holy Quran itself which sheds light on its exaltation and blessings.
(11) Nay, but verily it is an admonishment (12) so let whoever will pay head to it (13) On honoured leaves (14) Exalted, purified (15), (set down) by scribed (16) Noble and righteous (Abas 11 to 16)
It is thus shown that the Quran is a book to be revered. Almighty Allah revealed it in the heavens and the Holy angles protecting it in their hands according to the command of God, delivered its verses to the Prophet of Allah (P.B.U.H). It is the manifest sign of its superiority and holiness.
“In other passage, Allah has extolled the excellence of the Quran. (Maeda 48)
We revealed unto thee the book with righteousness which attests those books in their hands
Apart from this in Sura Anaam: 156 are these Divine words:
Lest ye should say. If the scripture was revealed only to two sects before us, and we in sooth were unaware of what they read
From this blessed verse, it is clear that the Quran is a Holy and revered book, revealed so that its commandments be obeyed, the fear of God be adopted. Therefore, God will reward you with his benevolence and his mercy for obeying its commands and for partaking of its blessings.
There are many similar verses regarding the revelations of the Quran and which describe the book’s excellence and the blessings promised by God.
Now we present the translation of the Sura Hujurat with a brief account of its intents.
The Types of Revelations
The Commandments which the Almighty Allah had revealed for the guidance of mankind has been divided by exegesis into two categories as below:
Wahee-A-Matlu means the revelation which God has transmitted in His own words and speech, for example, The Quran. It is essential that such revealed words should be recited in the same accent, diction, and pronunciation as they were revealed, with strict adherence to the correct vowel sounds as Zer, Zabar, and Pesh any departure from this rule has been strictly forbidden as sin. Such extreme precaution has been taken in this respect that the writing of any sentence from the Quran in characters other than those used by the Quraish has been declared prohibited. The example of this is the scripture of Hazrat Osman, that is the written volume of the Quran which Hazrat Osman, on the insistence of other companions of the Holy Prophet, got inscribed in a book form. For this achievement, he was given the title of “The compiler of the Quran”.
Thus even after a thousand and a half years, the Moslem throughout the world recite it in the same manner, and God willing they will continue to do so till the end of the world.
2- Wahee-E-Ghair Matlu
By this is meant the revelation which God through his messenger Angel Jabrail projected into the heart of the Holy Prophet. The words of such revelation are not the words of the Almighty, but the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) transmitted these revealed edicts, to the people, in his own words. The Scholars of Hadith and the intellectual of Islamic research have also prescribed the same cautions in uttering the words of this Wahee in the same manner as of the divine words, ad verbatim. For this reason, the memorizing of Hadith is also as obligatory and serious, as of the Holy Quran. But relaxation has been allowed so far the explanation, of meaning and object of Hadith, are concerned. The scholars may use words of their own to make the meaning and purpose of Hadith more clear. For example, in the case of describing the Sunnat of the Prophet (P.B.U.H) and his deeds the use of own words are permissible.
The Revelation of the Ayat or the Verses
The God Almighty since the very beginning of Eternity had composed the Holy Quran in the same form as it is today and after this creation of the universe kept it secured on the 1st Heaven. Then after the confernment of Prophethood on Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) by Him, He revealed his Ayat as and when He thought them necessary, to Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) Hazrat Ayesha (God be with her) has reported that the Quranic verses were revealed for Moslems at intervals so as to familiarise them with the edicts of God and enable them to follow these in practice, and memorize them by and by. Had the Quran been revealed wholly at a time like Taurat, the scripture the Moslems would have shirked form practicing the precepts and would have pretended to be incapable of following the huge number of commandments.
As the words of the Quran continued to be revealed by God, Gabriel the trusted Angel used to explain the verses of the Quran and the order of their composition to the Holy Prophet? The Holy Prophet in-turn communicated them to his companions in the same manner. That is why as the verses were revealed bit by bit the Holy Prophet used to recite the same himself and the blessed companions also followed this practice. This method continued for 23 years, which is the whole duration of the period of revelation.
The Naming and Characterising the Surah (Chapter)
This fact should be borne in mind that the Holy Quran is not written edict but a spoken message. it is not correct to look for strict order of cohesion and sequence. It is a fine piece of orational and conversational excellence and during its recitation attention is not diverted to other things. After a few sentences, new subjects emerge and hold the interest of the reciter fast. It is also a miracle of the Holy Quran that being so much voluminous it never turns uninteresting and the concentration is never broken and it is read from beginning to the end with rapt attention. It is not possible to describe all the great qualities of Holy Quran on this occasion, that is why hundreds of researchers and intellectuals have written books on this subject and shall continue to write till the day of resurrection. It is a book of God and not those any human being.
Now to come to the topic of the method of naming the Surah of the Holy Quran, it has been stated earlier that the Holy Book is not written a message in which subject and topics may be fixed and chapters arranged in a given order, but it is a book of the vocal message which God Almighty revealed by His own Will according to the manner and arrangement thought fit by Him. That is why some Surah were named according to the predominant event or object occurring in the Surah. For example, the first Surah is named “Al-Baqrah” because the Surah depicts the important event of the worship of calf by the people, which is still practiced by the infidels. Fifteen hundred years have passed since the Holy Quran was revealed, yet the absurdity of Cow worshipping is still in practice, and the Holy Quran miraculously points the folly of this worship even today. Is this not a miracle of the universality of the Holy Quran?
How stupid and unfortunate it is that for the sake of protecting a cow the blood of millions of fellow human being is shed. It can be appreciated how the Holy Quran has exposed the folly and meanness of such in Surah Al-Baqra or the Chapter of the Cow.
When the sentences of a Surah were completely revealed then the Holy Prophet used to name the Surah and fix its beginning and end according to the sequence of the Ayat or verse. This was done under divine, guidance. When the Surah (chapters) were completed its compilation were also arranged in proper sequence for the Holy Quran. The Holy Prophet used to recite the Holy Quran in this order and in every month of Ramadan he recited the same before the Angel Gabriel. But in the last years of his Holy Life, he recited the Quran twice before Gabriel. This created apprehension in the minds of the inspired companions and they feared that these recitations might be the last of the holy prophet’s life. This actually proved to be true. For example, on the occasion of (Hijjatul Wida) the last Haj, when the Ayat, regarding completion of religion, were revealed then Hazrat Abubakar, the great truthful, inspite of being happy, burst into tears for the thought that when the religion was completed by God the assignment of the Holy Prophet might be ending and he might be departing from them in the corporeal life.
The Inscription of the Holy Quran
When the holy prophet, after the completion of religion (Deen) departed from this world and left the book of God (Quran) and his own precept and practices for our guidance, then in the early regime of Hazrat Abu Bakar the remnants of hypocrites and disbelievers thought it opportune time for their attack on Islam. Under an infidel Muslema, the liar, who proclaimed himself a prophet, these enemies of Islam and some defiant Arab tribe congregated with sinister motive. Such a critical time when the Muslims had hardly recovered from the shock of the demise of their dear prophet, and the fully armed rebellious Arabs and infidels were poised for attack, they (Muslims) had to defend their faith in the face of death one side were arrayed the armed might of the Arab rebels bent on destroying them and on the other were the Muslims (faithful) who were stunned by the demise of their prophet, at this time Hazrat Abu Bakar exhorted the Muslims to defend their faith and joined the battlefield against them. Such a fierce battle ensued that had no comparison with confrontation in the past. The valiant faithfulls showed such prowess and courage that the enemies were completely annihilated. No such mischief could dare raise its head again in future. But this holy battle also brought the disaster in the shape of the martyr of about seventy memorizers of Quran. After their defeat, the infidels scattered far and wide, but wherever they went they caused mischief.
Under these circumstances, Hazrat Omar Farooque drew the attention of Hazrat Abu Bakar towards the compilation of the Holy Quran in Book form. He opined that the memorizers cannot be prevented from joining the holy wars, but if things continued like this the number of Huffaz will be diminished alarmingly and great difficulty will be faced in compiling the Holy Book. He suggested for the compilation of the Quran in one volume. After serious thought, the first caliph consented to the idea and he proclaimed that all the written portions of the Quran be collected together. After that Hazrat Zaid Bin Sabit who was an expert calligraphist, and wrote down revealed words before the Holy Prophet and was a true lover of the Quran was selected for the task. He has God gifted memory and on the behest of the Holy Prophet had learned the Suriyani language of Jews also.
When he was selected for this assignment he was a full grown adult and had the whole Quran by heart. There was no apprehension of lapses of memory about him. The Quran had to be written in the script of the Quraish tribe because it was revealed in the diction & accent of the Quraish. The Hazrat Zaid was also of the Quraish tribe, so there was no person more suited for the job than him. That is why Hazrat Abu Bakar said:
“There is no doubt about your integrity and worthiness, and moreover you had been the writer of Wahee during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet, and you had inscribed the Quran after listening to the recitation of the Holy Prophet, so you collect the pieces of Quran and write them down in book form“.
When Hazrat Zaid was assigned to this onerous task it is reported that he exclaimed that he been called to lift and remove a mountain it would have been much easier for him than discharging such grave responsibility.
It was consequently proclaimed that whosoever of the companion of the Holy Prophet who had listened to the verses of the Quran direct from the holy mouth of the prophet and noted them should present the same to the Caliph.
Hearing the announcement, the Sahabas presented the pieces of writings of the Holy Quran recorded on different materials. It is reported that a group of Huffaz (memorizers of the Quran) was also provided to Hazrat Zaid for the purpose of helping him. Though he was himself a Hafiz of the Quran when any companion produced a piece of written Quran he used to ask in the first instance if he noted these down after hearing the same from the lips of the Holy Prophet. After that, he used to make two Huffaz as a witness and then would write down the piece of the Quran. Thus the Holy Quran was compiled in the form of a book and the copy was handed over to the Caliph Hazrat Abu Bakar. He notified to the desirous people to copy down his volume from the official copy. After that, this copy remained with the second Caliph Hazrat Omar and after him, it was kept in the custody of Hazrat Hafza, Ummul Momin (The mother of the faithfuls).
After the regime of Hazrat Omar when caliphate-passed to Hazrat Osman, far off places were conquered and Islam had spread to distant countries. Inside Arabia, there were tribes which spoke in different accents and used various manners of speech. But when the sphere of the preaching of Islam spread beyond the limits of Arabia, Hazrat Huzefa (may God be pleased with him) went to the northern boundary of Iran and Iraque on Jihad (Holy War). There he saw the locals people reciting the Holy Quran in their native accent and the Arabs insisted upon them to discard their native accent and use an Arabian accent, this often leads to quarrel and hot discussion between them. At this, Hazrat Huzefa apprehended the tension and difference growing into harmful controversy, when he returned to Medina he narrated the situation to Hazrat Osman and requested him to come to the rescue of the nation and destroy the mischief which was raising its head. Hazrat Osman placed the issue before the companions who were unanimous in their opinion that it was essential to bring the nation to a common manner of recitation.
Hazrat Osman called for the copy of the Holy Quran, from Hazrat Hafsa which he himself had compiled. He directed Hazrat Zaid Bin Sabit to make out copies of this volume and to assist him he appointed a group of Sahabas (companions) so that even a minor error should occur in the copies, and the Quran should be recited in the tone and accent of the Quraish tribe, and where a difference occurs inscribing then the character or script of the Quraish tribe be used, because the Holy Quran was revealed in the diction and dialect of the Quraish. After this, a copy of the Holy Quran was sent to each province or satrap and it was ordered at the same time that any copy not conforming to the official copy be destroyed wherever found.
It is due to this magnum opus that Hazrat Osman is remembered with the title of Jameul Quran or the collector of the Holy Quran. For this reason, the scholars, researchers, and exegesists of Islam have declared the writing of Holy Quran in any other character or script as unauthorized.
The Miracles of the Quran
From the root word of Ejaz the word (Miracle) Mojaza has been formed, which means literally “to bewilder”. But in the term of Islamic concept, it means any act which is different from usual acts and is opposed to the normal character. It should be manifested through a Prophet in such a manner that the human power and capacities seem helpless to react the same. And at the first sight a man should understand that this is the manifestation of the divine will, Mojazat (miracles) are the proofs of Prophethood and for this reason, the Almighty just after bestowing Prophethood on his apostles gifted them with the power of performing miracles, so that moved by the supernatural powers people might understand the high position of the prophets and believe in their truthfulness.
The history of the religions of the world makes it clear that the Almighty blessed the prophets with the power of performing miracles to outdo the highest achievements of intellect or physical capabilities of the people of the time, and to make them realize the frailties of their worldly might and condescend to obey the words of the prophet. For example, the period of Mosses is called the “Period of Samri” Magic and witchcraft had reached its optimum. So Moses strove to destroy the magic by miracles. Similarly, the age of Christ was called the “Age of GALEN”, when the science of healing was on its peak he broke the delusion of this power by his miracles, by identical miracles to bedim the power of such mundane signs. When the time for bestowing of prophethood on Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) approached, the Arabs were at the height of excellence of oration and sophistry of language, and they were very proud of this. To defeat their self-delusion the Almighty gifted the Holy Prophet with the miracles of the Holy Quran. The great Poets and orators of the time after listening to the recitation of the Holy Quran were bound to admit that the words of the Holy Quran were not that of a human being.
Thus it can be challengingly declared that to assert that one has fully realized the meaning of a deep and vast treasure of knowledge and science contained in the Holy Quran is far from the truth. But so long this earth exists new beauties and fresh truth will continue to be discovered from the Holy Quran. The scholars within bounds of their knowledge and reach of thinking have prescribed such methods by which the different aspects of the miracle of the Holy Quran becomes prominent and perceptible.
In this connection, Qazi Ayaz in his book “Shefa” writes that there are numerous aspects of the miracles of the Quran. But according to my understanding the more conspicuous are the following:
Husne Talif the beauty of Compilation
1- That the coherence of inter-link and the well-balanced proportion of words and sentences of the Holy Quran whose excellence of diction and accent surprised the world also amazed the sophisticated linguist of Arabia.
2- The unique arrangement and setting of words & sentences which are quite different and are distinguished from the prose, verse, and style of the Arabs, thrilled the orators, poets, and scholars of Arabia when they read or listened to the Holy Quran.
3- The narration of the history of the people and of the events of the nations of the past with which not to speak of the illiterates. the elite and the people of the scriptures also were not acquainted. After the revelation of the Holy Quran, the events proved correct and true and this is a clear proof of the miracle of the Quran. In this respect, the Holy Quran itself announces “The facts on which the children of Israel had doubts and differences have been stated truly by the Holy Quran.”
4- The information given by the Quran about the hidden facts and foretelling of the events of the future and the subsequent facts of their being proved true by the Quran is proof of the miracle of the Holy Quran. For instance, the Holy Quran Prophesised the supremacy and conquest of the Romans over Iran, at a time when there was no worldly chance visible for the Romans for such achievement. The Holy Quran says “The Romans have been vanquished in the land of Persia (by Iranians) but after being subdued they (Roman) will be victorious over the Fire Worshippers eventually”.
The fact is this that the Polytheist of Mecca sympathized with the FireWorshipping Iranians on the similarity of their faith with them. But the Christians of Rome being the people of the Holy scripture fraternized with Muslim. For this reason, when the fire-worshippers of Iran got Victory over the Christians the polytheist of Mecca and the infidels of Arabis rejoiced over this and boasted that their co-believers prevailed over the Christians and in the same manner they (The Arabs and the Meccan)will destroy the Muslim as well. At this critical juncture the Holy Quran Prophesised the return of victory to the Roman Christians. After the revelation of the Ayat (verse) of the Quran when in the year 1 Hijra, the Muslims were celebrating the victory of Badar, the happy tidings came that the Romans of the Holy Book had gained victory over the fire worshippers. Being moved by this miracle many nonbelievers accepted the Holy Quran as a divine book and embraced the faith of Islam.
5- Qazi Abu Bakar states in “Al Attequan” that the greatest distinction of the Holy Quran is this that the compilation, arrangement, and setting, of the words and sentences and the beauty of their symmetry, is quite distinct from the seven prescribed rules of the Arab people. Not a single example can be found of this excellence in the manner and diction of the Arabs. Over and above this, all the beauties of figures of speech, syntax, and phraseology are present in the Holy Quran. The constellation of all the beauties and fineness of speech in the Holy Quran in such a way is nothing short of a glaring miracle.
6- The sweetness of words and sentences of the Holy Quran is felt by everyone, be he a devotee of Arabian language or not. The beauty of the words of the Holy Quran is so much outstanding that if any Ayat or verse of the Quran is inserted between any other Arabic writing its distinct prominence shines as bright as the stars in the dark firmament.
7- Every nation has its own way of expression according to its own temperament, likes and dislikes, and national attitude. It means that what it exalted by one nation may be abhorred by the others. But the purity of the Quranic diction, its oratorial dignity, and literacy cadence is suited to every temperament, and popular to every nation. One may be Arab and Iranian, Asiatic or western, he enjoys the beauty of the Holy Quran.
8- In a long speech or narrative, its original dignity does not sustain uniformly from beginning to the end. Except in respect of the Holy Quran, it is seen in every case that if the beginning dignity of words and style abound then in the middle the sparkle and excellence does not exist. In fine, the original excellence cannot be maintained uniformly in a long speech or writing, but in the Holy Quran it is uniquely sustained throughout and every Ayat whether in the beginning, middle or end shines in its pristine glory without any difference.
9- Every speech reveals the dignity and states of the speaker, for example from the words of exegist there flows a current of inspiration, from the words of king, emerges the impression of might and powers, from those of philosophers an effect of wonder and tranquility is transmitted, but the divine words are supreme over these, and reflect the Almightiness, omnipotence, omniscience, and the grand divinity of God (Allah). In was under such influence that millions of people embraced the religion of Islam.
10- No intellectual talent could succeed so far in beautifully diverting and interposing one subject to another or one topic to another, but it is the exemplary quality of the Holy Quran that in it subjects and topics transit into one another so beautifully that one simply marvels at this, for example, the diversion from the topic of monotheism to commandment, from lore to subject of monotheism, from the edict of marriage and divorce to the ordainment of prayer and levy the transition come and go marvelously together. Nowhere any incongruity in continuing, relevancy and meaning are perceived.
11- Another proof of the miracle of the Quran is that if a word is used in a particular sentence it appears very fine and sweet but if the same word is set in other speech or writing it seems incongruous and misfit. The above are some of the angles of view described briefly in proof of the divinity of the Holy Quran. For these reasons, the Holy Quran is challenged, through its words the infidels to produce only three sentences of their own identical to those of the Holy Quran, in support of their disbelieve in the Holy Book. But no one picked up the challenge even during fifteen hundred years.
The following context is written from the book ‘SIRAT E MUSTAQIM’ by ‘PROF. ABDUL QAYYUM NATIQ’. All rights reserved no part of this publication can be reproduced, either written or printed in any form without the legal permission of the publisher.